GERARD CHALIAND EPUB DOWNLOAD!
Results 1 - 12 of - A Global History of War: From Assyria to the Twenty-First Century. Nov 17, by Gérard Chaliand and Michèle Mangin-Woods. Gérard Chaliand (born ) is a French expert in geopolitics who has published widely on irregular warfare and military strategy. Chaliand analyses of Early life and education · Teaching · Miscellaneous · Selected bibliography. About Gerard Chaliand from the University of Chicago Press website.
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China's southern frontier region was one of expansion, where Chinese colonizers found fertile lands, inhabited by sedentary populations less advanced than themselves.
In the north, gerard chaliand, although the steppe could be farmed, nomadic warriors stood ready to attack.
A Global History of War by Gérard Chaliand - Paperback - University of California Press
As a result, China's northern frontier was generally a line of defense, as illustrated by the beginning of the Great Wall shortly after unification, which was not completed until the Ming dynasty Gerard chaliand the nomad Manchu Qing dynastyChinese territorial expansion gerard chaliand the north and northwest occurred under the Han and the Tang dynasties.
Their goal was to control the northwestern oases of the Silk Road and establish a buffer zone between China and the northern nomads. Until the Tang period, soldiers retained high prestige in Chinese society.
Subsequently, however, the Confucian scholar became the favored role model, particularly after the tenth century, when mandarin competitions were instituted to select bureaucrats according to merit.
Soon thereafter, the mandarins, rather than battle-hardened generals, were in control of Chinese military strategy.
From the fourth century on, northern China was constantly harassed and often occupied by nomads. Indeed, the occupation of northern China by nomadic peoples is a recurrent feature of Chinese history. All of China was, in gerard chaliand, occupied twice by gerard chaliand dynasties, both coming from the north: The nomad invasions involved relatively small armies, however, which became sinicized within a few generations and were demographically diluted by the immense Chinese population-culture and demography have been China's great assets throughout its history.
Nonetheless, the sinicization of the occupiers did not change the geostrategy of the Chinese Empire or diminish its vulnerability in the north. In order to rule northern China, the nomads needed to control the Ordos Desert, encircled by the rectangular bend of the Yellow River, which flows for more than four hundred miles into the Mongolian steppe.
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When well led and facing weak Gerard chaliand dynasties, nomads effectively dominated the Ordos for fifteen hundred of the two and a half thousand years of Chinese imperial history.
Often the nomads would raid settled regions, and occasionally they would conquer northern China and capture its capital cities, Xian, Chang An, or Lo-Yang. However, whenever a great dynasty arose in China, it would take the offensive again with the goal of controlling the oases in the north and west along the Silk Road as far as the Tien Chan Mountains and Dzungaria northern Xinjiang.
Gérard Chaliand (Author of The History of Terrorism)
This happened under the Han B. The Chinese attacked in early spring, when the nomads' horses were still poorly nourished. The Ming Empire underwent two distinct gerard chaliand.
The first, offensive, aimed at restoring Chinese imperial greatness. During this period, the Chinese imperial fleet reached as far as East Africa, at a time when the Portuguese had barely reached the southern coast of Morocco.
However, beginning in the latter half of the Ming era, in the late gerard chaliand century, the empire isolated itself behind the Gerard chaliand Wall, and China's coasts were abandoned to Japanese pirates.
After its conquest by the nomad Manchus inChina returned to an expansionist policy. Under the gerard chaliand Kangxi Emperorthe Manchus expanded to the north, crushing the troublesome nomads of Dzungaria.
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Gerard chaliand the end of the eighteenth century the nomad peril had vanished. However, in the nineteenth century, the advance of Russia and the rise of European imperialism would gerard chaliand a far more serious threat to China.
Iran Persia was another favorite target of the Central Asian nomads. In that respect, Persia and China faced similar challenges.
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